Eczema is a skin disease of neuro-allergic origin. It is characterized by rashes on the skin and strong itchy sensations. According to statistics, eczema accounts for 40% of all skin diseases. In case of inadequate therapy, it may become chronic. It is developed by the influence of various factors, both in infants and in adults. In this article we will look closely at the baby eczema disease and find out how to cope with it.
Eczema is an allergic chronic skin disease that is characterized by different types of rash, mainly blisters. Eczema is often prone to exacerbations and is characterized by severe itching.
Baby eczema occurs, as a rule, within the first months of life. First, the disease makes itself felt by a small reddish speck with a rough surface. When scratching and developing, the rash spreads and becomes moist. Purulent discharge may appear due to the penetration of the infection. In the case of dry eczema in infants, the skin becomes dry in some areas, and then itchy pink-red rash appears. Typically, inflammation in infants is localized on the cheeks, limbs, less often – on the body. Do not leave the disease without attention and treatment: it gives the child anxiety and discomfort and can leave scars on the skin for a lifetime.
Possible Reasons of Eczema
Specialists say that one of the main reasons for the development of baby eczema is a genetic predisposition. Usually, if one of the relatives suffers from chronic eczema, then the risk of this disease greatly increases in the offspring. However, in order for this dermatitis to appear, a kind of push is required.
Severe stresses, irritating skin care products, all sorts of allergic reactions in acute forms, as well as serious diseases of the liver, gastrointestinal tract and other internal organs can be considered as provoking factors. Additional causes of eczema are a sharp weakening of the immune system and metabolic disorders.
The most frequent cases of rash in children take place in the first year of life (about six months). The immature gastric tract and thin children’s skin is very sensitive to various allergens. In addition, strong hormonal changes in adolescence also provoke the appearance of rashes, both in boys and girls.
Eczema is quite common in infants. It usually affects the surface of the cheeks, hands and feet, it is much less common on the body. The following factors can provoke the development of the disease:
- metabolic disease;
- lack of vitamins and minerals in the body;
- intrauterine infectious diseases during pregnancy in the mother of the baby;
- the effect of external chemical irritants on the pregnant woman’s body (smoking, dyes, toxic substances);
- intestinal dysbacteriosis in the child;
- congenital tendency to allergic reactions;
- poor nutrition of nursing mothers;
- non-compliance with the rules of personal hygiene of the baby;
- nervous disorders;
- unsanitary environment.
Types of Eczema
Doctors distinct the following types of baby eczema:
- true (occurs in children aged 3 to 6 months and manifests itself in the form of small bubbles containing liquid);
- microbial (characterized by lesions of the skin with fungal infections);
- atopic (occurs due to hereditary susceptibility to allergic reactions);
- contact (caused by the impact on the body of the child external factors: cosmetics, synthetic fabrics and so on).
Symptoms of the disease are pronounced and usually looks like this:
- redness and cracks in the skin;
- swelling of the skin;
- small numerous eruptions that do not have clear boundaries;
- severe itching;
- the appearance of crusts and scales on the affected areas;
- lethargic condition;
- lack of appetite;
- sleep disturbance.
Diagnostics of Baby Eczema
The main methods of diagnosing eczema in infants include a number of studies that with the following procedures:
- examination by a pediatrician;
- study of anamnesis (identification of the possible causes of the disease, manifested symptoms, the influence of the hereditary factor);
- general blood and urine tests;
- samples of crusts from the affected areas to determine the fungal infection;
- in difficult cases, histological examination of skin particles is prescribed;
- dermatologist consultation.
What’s the danger of baby eczema?
- recurrent nature of the disease;
- infection of scratched places;
- the appearance of scars on the places of rash; etc.
A timely visit to the doctor and adequate treatment will help to avoid undesirable effects of eczema.
What a Mother Can Do
At the slightest manifestations of the disease, it is necessary to urgently show the baby to the doctor. He will conduct a survey and prescribe the necessary comprehensive treatment, in addition to which it is recommended to adhere to the following rules:
- following a special diet for a nursing mother. In the case of artificial feeding choose hypoallergenic mixtures and formulas;
- ensuring the purity of the child’s skin;
- bathing the baby in boiled water without using soap and shampoo with the addition of decoctions of antiseptic herbs (succession, chamomile, calendula);
- in order to avoid scratching, the baby needs to wear cotton mittens;
- children’s clothes should be only from natural fabrics;
- wash the baby’s clothes with a hypoallergenic powder and rinse off well;
- regular wet cleaning of the children’s room;
- airing and moistening of air;
- to prevent dry skin, treat the baby’s skin with special lotions after bathing;
- compliance with the regime of abundant drinking;
- exclusion from the environment of irritants that can cause allergic reactions.
A diet for nursing mothers whose baby suffers from eczema prohibits the following foods: spicy, salty, sour; smoked meat; citrus fruits, strawberries, bananas, mangoes; seafood; corn and any products on corn grits; alcoholic drinks.
What a Doctor Can Do
The doctor after the survey prescribes a comprehensive treatment, which includes the following:
- taking drugs containing Bifidobacterium to normalize the intestinal microflora;
- drugs containing calcium;
- use of ointments and creams of local action based on natural ingredients to relieve puffiness, inflammation and itching of the skin.
To prevent the development of eczema in newborns follow the mentioned below rules:
- timely treatment of any diseases in the mother of the baby;
- regular visits to the dentist;
- proper nutrition of nursing mothers;
- a comfortable emotional environment in the family;
- daily bath for the baby;
- compliance with the rules of individual hygiene of infants;
- the use of extremely safe cosmetic baby care products;
- ensuring cleanliness in the children’s room, regular airing and humidification of the air.