Baby rash on the body may indicate both allergies and the presence of an infection. The rash may be present in different varieties: red spots, blisters, pimples, etc. If your baby has a rash, you should immediately contact your doctor, who will determine the cause and prescribe necessary treatment, which will help reduce itching. If there is a need, the doctor may prescribe a course of antibiotic therapy as well. In any case, please, keep in mind to consult a doctor before taking any steps towards treating your baby with anything.
Types of baby rash and their causes
Any pathological changes in the skin, the color, relief and density which differ in some way from normal skin are called a rash:
- spots – flat red, pink or whitish areas without edema;
- blisters – convex, dense formations, with or without a cavity inside;
- pustules – ulcers;
- papules are small seals without cavities.
The rash can be local, or it can spread throughout the body with or without fever. Baby rash is caused by: allergies to food, contact means and household chemicals; infectious diseases of bacteriological and viral nature; insect bites and other injuries of the skin.
Possible Reasons of Baby Rash
There are many different reasons that can trigger such an unpleasant symptom as a rash. The most common causes include the following:
- Skin diseases. Frequently, babies may develop heat rash. It is caused by lack of hygiene or excess heat. This disease manifests itself in the form of red pimples with pustules in the middle. Still, do not forget that they may be caused by insects’ bites.
- Allergy. It may occur due to the fact that the baby had contact with the pathogen or ate the product prohibited to him. Allergies are often provoked by pollen, fluff, dust and detergents. Allergic rash appears in the form of redness, which constantly itches.
Separately, it is necessary to allocate such a cause as infectious diseases. These diseases include the following:
- chicken pox;
- scarlet fever;
- measles, etc.
Basic rules for action when rash appears
If a rash appears in a child, you should immediately consult a doctor;
It is not recommended to use any medication without prescription of a doctor – self-treatment can worsen the child’s condition;
When a hemorrhagic rash is detected (local hemorrhages that, when pressed with a finger, do not go away), it is necessary to urgently call an ambulance. This is how meningitis may appear.
Common Types of Baby Rash
Heat rash occurs in young children in hot weather, at excessively high temperatures in the room or when the child is wearing too many clothes. Rashes are similar to small reddish or transparent bubbles, concentrated in the skin folds or localized in the form of a “necklace” – around the neck, on the shoulders, chest, and partly on the chin. In general, this type of rash is not dangerous, but may be disturbing. The rash is usually itchy, and starts hurting when combed.
To cope with such irritation, you need to make sure that the child does not sweat due to the fact that he is hot. The air around should be moderately cool, clothes should not rub the skin in the area of the rash. After consulting with a doctor and eliminating other diseases, you can proceed to the second step – the delicate drying of the rash.
The skin of an allergic child may react to the irritant in different ways:
- Dermatitis – contact dermatitis is manifested in the form of itching, burning, due to which the baby combs the skin to the blood. Coarsening and the formation of crusts in the folds and on the cheeks are characteristic of atopic type of dermatitis;
- Diathesis – red scaly eruptions, often accompanied by baby’s crying, irritability and sleep disturbances;
- Eczema – prominent lesions on the face and neck, hands and ankles, which are covered with a crust. They are often bursting and itching.
- Urticaria – red or orange bulging puffy spots of various shapes and severities. Also, whitish liquid can be accumulated inside large ones.
Important: if you notice Urticaria in the child, the lesions increase, the lips, eyelids and fingers become swollen, keep in mind that it may indicate the development of Quincke’s edema. I t is very dangerous to health. If you detect such changes, you must immediately call an ambulance. If the child is allergic, parents should always have effective antihistamines along.
Therapy for allergies should be complex. The doctor prescribes meds that quickly relieve local symptoms, support immunity and protect against unpleasant complications.
Response to Insects Bites
An insect bite – wasps, bees, midges, mosquitoes – is often painful, and after mechanical damage, the skin in the affected area can blush, swell and ache. Cold compresses or antihistamine lotions can help cope with these symptoms. After the bite of midges, the skin becomes covered with a diffuse rash. The most dangerous bites are bees, wasps, hornets, and other landfill bugs. The bite is very painful, and insect venom can cause the strongest reactions up to the edema of the respiratory tract. If a child is bitten by a bee or a wasp, you need to carefully monitor the condition of the baby for several hours. If the baby becomes sluggish, his face swells and his hands are weak, he needs immediate medical attention.
Diseases Leading to Baby Rash
Skin reactions often accompany acute childhood illnesses. Rash can be both the main symptom and part of mixed symptoms. That is why, when a rash appears, it is necessary to visit the clinic as soon as possible or to call the doctor to the house.
Chickenpox refers to acute viral diseases that are transmitted by airborne droplets and are accompanied by clear symptoms. The infection is primarily signaled by a rash – the bubbles spread all over the body, become covered with a crust and, as the skin heals, start itching much. Such eruptions do not require specific treatment, they go away within a few days if the recommendations of the pediatrician are observed. Chickenpox rash can spread without fever. As soon as new bubbles cease to appear, it can be said that the disease has declined.
In the case of rubella, a common childhood disease, the red dot rash in a child spreads throughout the body, starting from the face and neck. It is preceded by an acute phase with characteristic symptoms of acute respiratory disease – temperature 37-38 degrees, cough and sore throat. In this case a doctor may recommend certain medications. Red dots of rash begin to go away in about 4 days after the appearance. After another 2-3 days, the child ceases to be contagious to the adults and other children around him.
Symptoms of measles are similar to those of rubella. The child feels weakness. Cough, sometimes a cold appear. The temperature of the body can increase significantly. A rash appears on the face of the child and spreads to the body. It can be pale and scanty, or, conversely, more pronounced. On the second day, the color intensity of the lesions decreases. Within 5 days, the exacerbation ends, the lesions begin to peel off and completely disappear in the following days without any local effect.
Scarlet fever in children is manifested as high fever, severe sore throat and a characteristic rash – punctate, bright pink or red, concentrated in the folds, for example, in the groin, inside the elbows, under the knees, etc. When localized on the face, the rash covers the cheeks and forehead. The nasolabial triangle usually remains unaffected. Since scarlet fever has many complications of varying severity, its treatment and the fight against symptoms should be conducted only under the supervision of a physician.
Scabies in children are caused by parasites – the so-called itchy mites. Hitting the skin, they “eat up” the moves inside it, which causes intolerable itching and characteristic rashes. A rash in a child with scabies is manifested in the form of small nodules and larger plaques that become wet and flaky. In the acute phase, scabby passages with small dots inside appear right through the skin – these are itchy mites. Scabies is very contagious and gives the child great discomfort. It is treated with special medications that are prescribed by a doctor. Moreover, the whole environment of the house and all household items (toys, linen, furniture, etc.) should be thoroughly treated.
Roseola is a disease that is experienced by most children from six months to two years. It has symptoms that are almost identical to ARVI. Approximately on the 4th day, the temperature drops quickly, and it is replaced by a rash on the child’s body – slightly convex, finely spotted eruptions appear first on the stomach, and then on other parts of the body. Their formation indicates the completion of the acute phase of roseola. The rash itself passes in 3-4 days without residual peeling and pigmentation.
With herpes, a child develops a bubble on the lips. The blister may be large, red, double, filled with fluid. The bubble bursts in several days. Its walls dry out and fall off. As it heals, it may itch.
Meningitis is one of the most dangerous childhood diseases. There are different ways of infection, and the disease itself is developing very rapidly. It starts with weakness, runny nose, sore throat. Later there appear acute headaches, muscle stiffness and the so-called Kernig’s symptom (the child cannot bend the knee bent at the hip joint). Another symptom of meningitis is hemorrhagic exanthema rash, (i.e. with subcutaneous hemorrhage) with a focus of necrosis in the center. If you find such signs, you should immediately call a doctor or an ambulance.