A miscarriage in medicine is a spontaneous (not artificial) termination of pregnancy by the body itself, which can no longer bear the fetus for some reason. Everyone wants to avoid this condition, so it is so important to know as much information about it as possible in order to warn, recognize, and take right measures in time.
There are various reasons for the threat of a miscarriage. They are usually dictated by the characteristics of the fetus, the state of the mother’s health, or some external factors. During the bearing of the baby, a woman faces many dangers, each of which at some point can provoke a miscarriage. The most common reasons are the following:
- lack of progesterone necessary to continue pregnancy;
- excess of androgens (these are male hormones that actively suppress female ones);
- maternal rejection of the fetus due to incompatibility with a man at the genetic level;
- mismatch of Rhesus factors: negative – in the mother, positive – in the father;
- abnormal blood coagulability (increased);
- pathological structure of the uterus: defects in its development;
- fetal genetic mutations;
- infectious diseases: rubella, chlamydia, syphilis, pyelonephritis, pneumonia and even tonsillitis during pregnancy;
- gynecological diseases: uterine fibroids, endometritis, inflammation, etc;
- previous abortions and miscarriages with curettage, since it damages the endometrium;
- endocrine diseases: thyroid problems, diabetes mellitus;
- taking certain medications that are contraindicated during pregnancy;
- herbal medicine;
- a common cause of the threat of miscarriage in the later stages is a pathology of the cervix or placenta;
- emotional state of a pregnant woman: constant stress, nervousness, resentment, anxiety, etc;
- bad habits: drugs, strong coffee and other harmful products, smoking, alcohol;
- falls, jumps, blows to the stomach, great physical exertion;
- ovum aging: according to statistics, women over 35 years old are diagnosed with a miscarriage 2 times more often.
Everything happens very individually. It is very important to identify the dangerous factor in time and exclude it from the life of the future mother, if possible. In order not to be late with treatment, you need to know the main miscarriage symptoms, which will become an alarming signal informing you about an urgent visit to a gynecologist.
The statistics says that 20% of all pregnancies end in a miscarriage.
Symptoms of an early miscarriage are the following:
- discharge with blood;
- pain in the ovaries and uterus;
- loss of consciousness;
- tone of the uterus.
In rare cases, the miscarriage symptoms pass unnoticed by a woman who takes this phenomenon for menstruation. Sometimes a miscarriage occurs “simultaneously”, that is, the fetus comes out with the membrane.
In any case, at the first sign of miscarriage you need to immediately go to the doctor or call an ambulance. Pay attention to the following signs:
- vaginal discharge with the threat of miscarriage, which can be different: spotting, profuse, prolonged, transient, bright in tone and vice versa – pale; it can stop and then resume again;
- pain, pulling sensations, a feeling of heaviness in the lower abdomen and in the lumbar region;
- the temperature with the threat of miscarriage can rise to 38-39 ° C, but this symptom is not required for this pathology.
These are the characteristic signs of a miscarriage threat in the early stages.
Note! In the later stages, the threat of miscarriage may take place in the absence of bloody discharge, but it will be accompanied by a liquid, watery discharge of a light color. This is evidence of leakage of amniotic fluid due to a violation of the integrity of the amniotic membranes.
Miscarriage may take place up to 22 weeks of pregnancy. Modern medicine is able to save a premature baby after this period, if the fetus weighs more than 675 grams. So, after 22 weeks it will already be called preterm birth, not a miscarriage.
Depending on the period of pregnancy, there are several types of this diagnosis:
- The threat of miscarriage at 12 weeks of gestation and before this period is called early.
- From 12 to 22 weeks – late.
Often miscarriages occur in the first 2 weeks after conception, when a woman is unaware of her pregnancy and perceives bleeding as unplanned menstruation. This is fraught with serious complications if the remnants of the fetus do not come out completely and begin to decompose in the uterus.
So, the first trimester of pregnancy is very dangerous in this regard. The main thing is to wait 22 weeks when the threat of miscarriage passes and you can give birth to a baby, which can be saved by innovative technologies of modern medicine.
Treatment of Miscarriage
Treatment of miscarriage is a complex and strictly individual concept. In particular, the threat of miscarriage can be prevented by taking the following measures:
- urgently consult a specialist doctor;
- follow the prescription of a doctor who will prescribe drug therapy to relax uterine myometrium;
- the practice of applying a circular suture to the cervix, which is removed at 36-37 weeks of pregnancy;
- try to stay calm and not abuse physical activity.
If the probability of a miscarriage is nevertheless confirmed and the pregnancy is terminated, it is necessary to perform the following actions:
- vitamins, as well as hemostatic, painkillers and sedatives;
- psychological help;
- regular examination by a gynecologist;
- pelvic ultrasound to detect cervical abnormalities.
As a rule, spontaneous miscarriage at an early stage does not lead to serious consequences for a woman’s health. Problems may arise if the miscarriage was caused intentionally and particles of the fetus or its membrane remained in the uterus. Therefore, after a miscarriage, for whatever reason it may be, experts recommend undergoing an ultrasound of the uterine cavity. In this case, the procedure for curettage of the uterine cavity is also recommended.
It is impossible to unequivocally answer the question of whether a miscarriage may happen in a pregnant woman. But there are a number of preventive measures that should be followed in order to avoid this outcome:
- regular food;
- lack of great physical exertion;
- stay in the fresh air;
- compliance with the recommendations of the doctor.
Note, keep in mind that this article is posted for educational purposes only and is not scientific material or professional medical advice.