Statistically, from 10% to 20% of all the diagnosed pregnancies end in a miscarriage. After such a tragedy, a lot of women are trying to conceive again. How does a pregnancy after miscarriage proceed?
Why can a miscarriage happen?
A miscarriage is a spontaneous interruption of pregnancy before the 22nd week (when the fetus becomes viable). If the labor begins after the 22nd week of pregnancy it’s called premature birth. In the latter case, the healthcare provider renders the necessary aid so that the newborn could survive outside of the mother’s womb. At the less than 22 weeks term reanimation is not performed.
Here are the possible causes of a miscarriage:
- Fetal development pathologies;
- Intrauterine infections;
- Immune system failure;
- Blood clotting disorders;
- The malformations of the uterus;
- Endocrine disorders.
The statistics have confirmed that about 80% of miscarriages happen before the 12th week of pregnancy. The first trimester is considered the most dangerous for an embryo. At this time any influence on it can be fatal. Early-term miscarriages are usually related to chromosomal aberrations of the fetus. After the 6th week of pregnancy, the likelihood of infections and hormonal disturbances leading to a miscarriage increases. If a miscarriage has occurred after the 12th week of pregnancy, the reason for it most probably lies in the hemostasis system.
Sometimes it’s impossible to find out the exact reason for a miscarriage. A spontaneous interruption of pregnancy during the early terms is considered a result of natural selection. The female body gets rid of a defective embryo the only possible way. That’s why it’s customary practice not to save the pregnancy during early terms.
In the majority of cases, a miscarriage is a rejection of the embryo which is already dead. Sometimes the fetus dies but the female body doesn’t get rid of it. A malfunction occurs: as a result, the uterus doesn’t contract, and the dead embryo remains in the womb for a long time. Such a condition is called stillbirth. It occurs in 20% of pregnancies.
The factors triggering a miscarriage:
- The age of a future mother (the risk of a miscarriage after 35 is 20%; after 40 – 40%);
- The number of previous pregnancies and abortions (the odds of a miscarriage are higher if a woman had two or more pregnancies in the past);
- Past miscarriages;
- Hormonal disturbances;
- Bad habits (smoking more than 10 cigarettes a day increases the probability of a miscarriage in the first trimester);
- Fever (raised body temperature is quite dangerous);
- Drugs intake (especially anti-inflammatory medications);
- The lack of folic acid;
Getting pregnant after miscarriage
Most women are able to get pregnant 3-12 months after a miscarriage. The likelihood of pregnancy after miscarriage increases if there have been no complications. If there are no other health problems, you can get pregnant next month.
A miscarriage is a condition which is accompanied by heavy blood loss. The bleeding is health-threatening for a woman, that’s why doctors don’t recommend waiting for the fetus to come out of the uterus. The odds of the embryo and the placenta leaving the womb completely are not that high. In the case of a heavy bleeding during a miscarriage, a procedure called vacuum aspiration is performed.
The removal of the embryo from the uterus is not always successful. After the procedure, there is a risk of such complications as:
- Heavy bleeding;
- Intrauterine infection;
- Hormonal failure;
- Parts of the embryo remaining in the womb.
Some women have irregular menstrual cycle after the procedure. On this background, getting pregnant after miscarriage becomes difficult. The female body can require more than 6 months for a full recovery. In some cases, a woman needs a course of rehabilitation therapy before planning another pregnancy after miscarriage. If pregnancy after miscarriage doesn’t happen in the next 12 months, you need to consult a medical expert.
Planning a pregnancy after miscarriage
Doctors don’t recommend trying to get pregnant immediately after a miscarriage. The minimal rehabilitation period is 3 months. The female body will finish its recovery and prepare for the next pregnancy. Some experts recommend a longer rehabilitation term – 6 months. The recovery time depends on the course of the dead embryo removal. If there are any complications after the procedure, it’s necessary to wait at least 6 months before planning a pregnancy after miscarriage.
Before trying to conceive, a woman needs to pass a medical examination:
- Tests for sexually transmitted infections;
- Blood test for hormones;
- A pelvic ultrasound;
- Autoimmune panel;
- A consultation with a geneticist.
The tests for STI include:
- Mycoplasma and ureaplasma infections;
- Genital herpes;
- Thrush (candidiasis);
- Other pathogens.
In order to detect pathogens, the doctor will need to take a vaginal smear and a blood sample. You’ll also have to pass a hormone test and a blood clotting test. If the tests reveal any diseases or pathologies, the pregnancy after miscarriage will depend on how successful the treatment is.
The exacerbation of chronic diseases can also lead to a miscarriage. In this case, make sure you’ve visited an expert and accomplished a remission before trying to conceive. During pregnancy after miscarriage you’ll also need to often consult a doctor. If you follow all the recommendations, you’ll have all chances to give birth to a healthy baby.
The course of the new pregnancy
A new pregnancy after miscarriage is a joy for any woman. Unfortunately, it not always ends happily. A woman pregnant after miscarriage belongs to the risk group and is likely to have a number of complications. If the future mother had 2 or more miscarriages, the risk of unfavorable outcome increases several times.
There is a possibility of another miscarriage during the early pregnancy terms. The likelihood of it increases if the woman hasn’t pass necessary medical examinations before pregnancy after miscarriage. Another miscarriage often happens at the same term as the previous one. If the woman has noticed the first signs of an upcoming miscarriage she should immediately visit a clinic and begin the prescribed therapy.
During the second half of pregnancy, the risk of a miscarriage is significantly lower. But there are some problems which can affect the course of pregnancy after miscarriage even at this point. A lot of future mothers have fetoplacental insufficiency resulting in the baby suffering from the lack of oxygen and nutrients. In severe cases, the arrest of development and giving birth to an underweight baby is possible.
Pregnancy after miscarriage usually means that a woman has slightly increased chances of premature birth. The delivery doesn’t always go well and can end in C-section. The probability of such an outcome is hard to predict. Some future mothers are doing very well and give birth to a healthy baby after a full-term pregnancy.
Pregnancy after miscarriage is likely to have a good outcome if the spontaneous interruption has happened just once. The possibility of another miscarriage increases by 20%, but even after such a prognosis, most women give birth to healthy babies. Following your doctor’s instructions and passing the necessary tests make your chances of a normal course of pregnancy after miscarriage considerably higher.