Miscarriage is a spontaneous termination of pregnancy before the 20th week. In most cases, this occurs when the woman does not yet know that she is pregnant. Thus, it is impossible to establish the actual number of miscarriages. According to medical statistics, every one in five pregnancies ends with a miscarriage. Most often, miscarriage occurs early, when a woman still does not know about her situation: a miscarriage within the first 2 weeks of pregnancy has almost no symptoms. But there are, of course, cases when a woman already knows about her pregnancy, but loses the child. According to statistics, from 10 to 20 percent of pregnancies end in miscarriage. These figures refer to women who know about their pregnancy. If you experience signs of miscarriage, seek medical help immediately.
Causes of Miscarriage at an Early Stage
Genetic disorders of the fetus
Genetics believe that about 75% of miscarriages occur precisely because of this factor. There is no sense to be afraid of it, since most often such deviations are accidental. They can be provoked by various viral diseases, radiation exposure and other external negative effects. Pregnancy in this case is interrupted due to the so-called natural selection, helping to get rid of unhealthy or non-viable offspring. It is almost impossible to avoid such a spontaneous termination of pregnancy. Due to the large number of negative environmental influences, it is impossible to prevent the risk of developing genetic abnormalities.
Malfunction of the hormonal background during pregnancy
Often, miscarriage at an early stage of pregnancy occurs when there is a lack of hormone progesterone in the female body. Such a failure in the hormonal background can occur for various reasons, but most often it is possible to prevent miscarriage if the threat was detected in time. Treatment includes a course of hormonal drugs. Sometimes women also have another problem of hormonal character – a high content of male hormones. They contribute to a decrease in the synthesis of estrogen and progesterone, which help the pregnancy to proceed normally.
Many people know about such phenomenon as Rh-conflict. It occurs when the fetus inherits from the father a negative factor of blood, and the mother has a positive blood factor. As a result, the female body perceives pregnancy as something alien and rejects it. At a risk of miscarriage at an early stage, a woman in this case is prescribed treatment, which involves taking a hormone of progesterone, acting as an immunomodulator.
Infectious diseases in women
To date, there are many diseases that are sexually transmitted. They can lead to a miscarriage in the early term. Such diseases include: toxoplasmosis, syphilis, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, herpes, chlamydia, cytomegalovirus and others. When planning pregnancy, you should know that many of these infections can be asymptomatic. Therefore, before getting pregnant, it is important to exclude their presence in your body. Spontaneous abortion is associated with infection of the embryo and affection of the membranes. If such diseases are detected during pregnancy, they should immediately be treated to reduce their impact on the fetus.
Weakened health of women and chronic diseases
The probability of miscarriage at an early stage of pregnancy increases in the case when a woman falls ill and there is a high temperature and intoxication of the body. The most dangerous diseases for a pregnant woman: hepatitis of viral nature, rubella and influenza. Even rhinitis or tonsillitis increases the risk of miscarriage. More serious diseases threaten not only the course of pregnancy, but also the health of the unborn child. Before planning pregnancy, it is necessary to be examined for chronic diseases and to treat them. It is also important to inform the doctor immediately about all the problems that exist.
Abortions in the past
A large number of women made abortions due to various reasons. Such interference in the body has a great deal of stress on it. The consequence of abortion can be an inflammatory process in the female organs, the development of dysfunction of the ovaries and adrenal glands. These complications also disrupt the normal course of a new pregnancy. Artificial abortion leads to secondary infertility. When a new pregnancy occurs, a woman should inform the doctor about the abortion.
Some drugs and herbal medicines
Everyone knows that some drugs can penetrate the placenta to the fetus and adversely affect it. The most dangerous is the reception of such drugs in the first trimester of pregnancy. This is due to the fact that in this period all the systems and organs of the unborn child are laid, and if there is a negative effect of drugs, there may be anomalies in the formation of the fetus, and consequently, miscarriage at an early stage.
Very often, unexpected causes lead to miscarriage at an early stage. One of them are stressful situations that have a negative effect on the course of pregnancy. Under compulsory circumstances that lead to stress, a pregnant woman should inform the doctor about this. You cannot start taking sedatives yourself: they can harm the fetus.
Excessive physical activity
For the period of pregnancy, a woman should refuse to lift weights, and, if necessary, evenly distribute the load and give herself a rest. The maximum permissible weight a pregnant can lift is 5 kg.
Falls and injuries rarely lead to spontaneous abortion, since the fetus is well protected in the womb. But, still, it is better to consult a doctor.
There are rare cases of miscarriages when a woman is fond of a hot bath. To reduce the risk of spontaneous abortion, a woman does not need to completely abandon such procedures, but do not make the water excessively hot. Also, the bath should last no more than 15 minutes.
Harmful habits of the future mother
Smoking and alcohol abuse during pregnancy can provoke miscarriage as well. Also, the excessive consumption of coffee and the lack of walks on fresh air negatively affect the development of the future child.
Symptoms and Signs of Miscarriage
The most common signs of miscarriage in the early stages of pregnancy include pain in the lower abdomen and bleeding. Pain can also be felt in the lower back. At the same time, the pain sensations are not permanent, but appear periodically. If red or brown discharge occurs, immediately consult the doctor to avoid spontaneous abortion.
A greater chance of maintaining pregnancy is with minor bleeding. With abundant bleeding, it significantly decreases. Bloody discharge with the admixtures of pieces of tissue testifies about the occurred miscarriage.
The tone of the uterus can be attributed to the signs of a threat of miscarriage, but only if it delivers a woman discomfort and is accompanied by pain. If the tone does not have unpleasant sensations, then the doctor recommends only a decrease in physical activity and avoidance of stress.
At any period of pregnancy, the signs of miscarriage are similar, only their soreness and the abundance of discharge can differ. In the second trimester, the following is added to the list of symptoms: damage to the amniotic fluid sac accompanied by fluid from the vagina, blood clots during urination, and very severe pain in the shoulder or stomach area, indicating internal bleeding.
The Second Trimester: Signs of Miscarriage
- the fluid that drips from the vagina speaks about the damage to the bag of amniotic fluid, in this case a visit to the doctor should be instantaneous;
- vaginal bleeding is a sign of miscarriage in any trimester of pregnancy;
- appeared clots of blood during urination, accompanied by painful sensations;
- internal bleeding, which can make itself felt as a very severe pain in the shoulder or in the area of the stomach.
How Does an Early Miscarriage Occur?
Miscarriage at an early stage does not occur at one time. This process can last from several hours, to several days. There are several stages:
The first stage (threatening miscarriage)
There are pulling pains in the lower abdomen. There are no discharges, the general state is normal. This condition can be maintained during the entire pregnancy with the intake of appropriate medications, until the timely delivery begins.
The second stage (started abortion at an early stage)
It is associated with the beginning of the detachment of the fetal egg. There are discharges of bloody nature. This is the most terrible sign of miscarriage in the first weeks. First, spotting can have a brownish color, but with increased bleeding it becomes bright scarlet. The intensity of bleeding varies from a few drops to a very severe one. Without medical intervention, bleeding can last long enough. Therefore, even having small discharge, you should consult your doctor.
The third stage (miscarriage in progress)
At this stage, the main sign of an early miscarriage is severe and intense pain in the lower back and the lower abdomen, which is accompanied by severe blood loss. This stage cannot be reversed; the fetal egg dies. But sometimes fetal death occurs even before the onset of miscarriage. The fetal egg in this case leaves the uterus not entirely, but in parts. This is the so-called incomplete miscarriage.
The fourth stage is a miscarriage
After the expulsion of the deceased fetal egg from the uterine cavity, the uterus begins to restore its original size. But keep in mind that complete miscarriage must be confirmed by ultrasound.
There is also such a phenomenon as missed abortion, when under the influence of certain factors a fetal egg dies, but is not expelled by the uterus. The signs of pregnancy in a woman disappear, but the general condition worsens. Fetal death in this case is confirmed by ultrasound. The only way to eliminate the fetal egg from the uterus is curettage.
In What Periods of Pregnancy Do Miscarriages Occur Most Often?
Miscarriage usually occurs at a very small period of pregnancy – 2-3 weeks. At the same time, a woman might not know yet about her pregnancy and perceives a miscarriage at an early date, as the beginning of menstruation. This is due to similar symptoms: spotting and pain in the lower abdomen.
Less often, miscarriage occurs at a later date of up to 20 weeks. Spontaneous miscarriage at a later date after 20 weeks is called stillbirth.