Many women experience numerous complications during pregnancy, including vomiting blood. Morning sickness is one of the most common ailments of pregnant women. This symptom itself is not a problem, but if throwing up blood while pregnant often takes place, then something is wrong. This symptom may indicate a latent health problem or a complication of pregnancy.
Throwing Up Blood while Pregnant: General Concepts
Vomiting blood while pregnant in medical practice is referred to as hematemesis. This process consists in traumatizing the upper gastrointestinal tract and getting blood into the vomit while passing through the esophagus. In this case, the woman notices small blood streaks with mucus. If the bleeding increases, another pathological condition develops – melena (frequent stool of black color).
Throwing up blood while pregnant appears as a result of micro traumas of the mucosa and destruction of nearby vessels. This occurs because of many diseases, for example, because of ulcers or as a result of regular vomiting with bile, which “corrodes” the esophagus.
During pregnancy vomiting with small bloody particles (so-called coffee grounds) mostly takes place. Fortunately, this diagnosis is absolutely not dangerous. In the absence of other complaints, it does not require treatment. This happens with minor blood loss, when there is a conversion of hemoglobin into hematin under the influence of hydrochloric acid.
Vomit Masses Containing Blood Can Vary Greatly in Appearance:
- Scarlet blood – indicates that it did not interact with hydrochloric acid. Thus, one can safely assume that the source of its appearance is the esophagus.
- The mass, similar to the color of the coffee grounds – suggests that blood was released in the stomach at least 3-4 hours ago. At the same time, the appearance of black stool can be noted.
- The cause of the dark color of vomit – may be not bleeding, but dark berries, beets or chocolate which have not yet been digested.
- Vomit with bloody foam – indicates damage to the lungs.
- Small bloody single veins – occur with a hernia of the esophagus or toxicosis.
- Abundant fountain-like vomiting of blood is the result of a thrombus rupture in esophageal varices.
Common Causes of Throwing Up Blood while Pregnant
In pregnant women, vomiting with an admixture of blood occurs for the same reason as in other people. However, pregnant women are much more likely to face situations that trigger such pathology. Thus, a complicated toxicosis with intense vomiting often ends with the development of the Mallory-Weiss syndrome (rupture of different parts of the esophagus).
However, toxicosis is not the only cause of hematemesis. There are a number of other factors that cause throwing up blood while pregnant.
Excessive food predilection, especially in the second half of pregnancy, leads to overeating, overloading the digestive system and vomiting. The use of indigestible food, in particular fried, smoked, and spicy food, greatly complicates the process of splitting the products. This process is further aggravated by an enlarged uterus that presses on internal organs and displaces them from their permanent location.
Blood appears in the vomit after repeated attempts to throw up. Gastric spasm damages the integrity of the mucosa, which is accompanied by blood loss. In this case, the woman notices the pain in the projection of the pancreas, malaise, and severe nausea.
Indiscriminate use of all kinds of dishes can provoke poisoning. The reason can be as bad quality products (infectious poisoning), as fresh vegetables and fruits, treated with pesticides (toxic poisoning). Regardless of the source of the toxic infection, a woman develops a vomiting syndrome. To distinguish poisoning from other diseases pay attention to the following symptoms:
- Nausea with secretion of saliva.
- The appearance of vomiting an hour and a half after the end of the meal.
- Presence of pieces of undigested products in the vomit masses.
- Acute pain in the navel area or aching pain in the pancreas.
- Acute diarrhea.
Diseases of the Gastrointestinal Tract
Throwing up blood while pregnant is caused by various pathologies of the digestive system. Most often this happens with a complicated ulcer disease, but there may be other causes. One can understand that throwing up blood while pregnant is caused exactly by a violation in the digestive tract, by the following signs:
- Pain syndrome in any part of the abdomen.
- Increased pain when you are hungry or, vice versa, after a meal.
- Unreasonable nausea, increased acidity, belching.
- Blood pressure falls.
- Black-brown color of the emitted masses.
Vomiting of bile with blood during pregnancy is capable of accompanying such diseases of internal organs as:
- Perforation of an ulcer. This pathology is accompanied by acute unbearable pain at one place (where ulcerative formation is localized), pressure loss, rapid pulse, loss of consciousness. This condition directly affects the life of a woman and, without adequate care, can result in peritonitis or lethal blood loss.
- Hernia of the esophagus. It appears under the influence of progesterone, that relaxes the muscles, and intra-abdominal pressure, which arose because of the increase in the uterus. This causes a stretching of the esophageal opening, which is accompanied by reflux esophagitis. A woman, in addition to vomiting, experiences belching, heartburn, stomach pain and, of course, hematemesis.
- Varicose veins of the esophagus. It occurs during pregnancy, if a woman has a liver pathology in the anamnesis. Thrombotic formations that bleed often appear on the portal vein. It is located in the stomach and lets all the venous blood through. Varicose veins in the esophagus are very dangerous, since they can bleed for a long time. Therefore, when detecting such a disease, treatment is immediately performed.
- Acute gastritis causes bleeding from the affected parts of the shell. Spicy food, alcohol, medical drugs, especially NSAIDs can provoke blood loss. To avoid the development of hematemesis, a woman should follow the prescribed diet.
- Duodenitis is an inflammatory process in the duodenum, which is accompanied by a copious discharge of blood with vomiting. In this situation, it is important to establish the presence of Helicobacter pylori and to conduct treatment. It is this bacterium that provokes self-rupture of the mucosa and the appearance of weakness, heartburn, and throwing up blood while pregnant.
Unfortunately, pregnancy does not guarantee the absence of oncology in women. On the contrary, fluctuations in the hormonal background can accelerate the growth of an already existing tumor. A neoplasm in the intestines, esophagus, and stomach often causes throwing up blood while pregnant. But this is not the only symptom. In addition, a woman can have:
- Chronic fatigue.
- Pain in the abdomen, not associated with food.
- Sharp attacks of nausea.
- Problems with defecation.
- Sudden intolerance to certain foods.
Other Causes of Throwing Up Blood while Pregnant
- Dehydration. A pregnant woman should eat only healthy food and drink plenty of water. Throwing up blood while pregnant may take place when the body lacks the fluid and necessary products. When the body of a pregnant woman does not have enough of a liquid, it causes vomiting with blood with pigment of the gallbladder and liver.
- Lack of nutrients. Many pregnant women suffer from morning sickness (including vomiting with blood) due to a lack of nutrients, in most cases after a meal.
- Food poisoning is one of the main causes of throwing up blood while pregnant that occurs due to the consumption of spoiled or toxic products. Make sure you eat fresh foods to avoid any complications for the baby.
- Hypertension. Women who suffer from hypertension during pregnancy are often prone to nausea and vomiting.
Throwing Up Blood while Pregnant: First Aid
One-time appearance of blood in vomit is conditionally related to safe symptoms during pregnancy. There is no need to panic and rush to the hospital. Still, it is necessary to inform your doctor about this.
If a severe condition develops, in which the woman notices a great loss of blood, her health worsens, and there are pains in the stomach, you need to immediately call an ambulance.
Before the doctor’s visit, it is recommended to support the patient’s condition:
- At the onset of another attack, do not restrain or, on the contrary, provoke vomiting.
- After relief, you need to put the pregnant woman on the bed, placing a pillow or a rolled up blanket under her back. This will reduce the pressure on the esophagus.
- The heat will prevent the fall in blood pressure and improve blood circulation. To do this, provide a woman with a warm blanket.
- Vomiting provokes dehydration. Make sure a woman drinks plenty of clean water. It is necessary to drink in small sips every couple of minutes.
- If there is severe blood loss, it is important to constantly monitor the pulse and make sure that the woman does not faint.
- If a woman faints, keep her head elevated so that she does not choke with vomit.
Throwing up blood while pregnant, especially in the early stages of pregnancy, occurs rarely. But if such a phenomenon does appear, it is better to consult a doctor to rule out a serious illness. Most likely, you will be prescribed a suitable diet, and drugs that depress the vomiting center. And after stabilizing your condition, you will feel good again.