The main priorities of modern medicine are the concern for the preservation of women’s reproductive health, protection and providing safe motherhood. Abortion is a real surgery, which performed at the later stages, leads to infertility, menstrual disorders, miscarriages and even maternal mortality. You can make the following conclusion – prevention of abortion can help to maintain the health of the woman, and give birth to a healthy baby.
New methods of birth control appear nearly every day. The science doesn’t stand still. New birth control pills are easy to use, they are reliable and safe for health, in fact, new pills have a therapeutic effect in some diseases.
Currently, medicine offers a huge variety of birth control, and any family may now choose the method of contraception that suits most.
However, speaking about the birth control pills, this choice should be supported by the expert advice. Only the qualified specialist can assess the health state of a woman and determine the indications for the prescription of this or that birth control method.
Types and brands of birth control pills
Despite a quite rich range of the birth control methods presented in a drugstore, hormonal birth control pills take the leading position today. The principle of work of the birth control pill is based on the hormones, responsible for the reproduction.
There are three types of birth control pills you may find on the market:
The percentage of estrogen and progestin components do not vary from pill to pill.
The dose of estrogen is identical in all pills, and the dose of a progestogen varies for the 1st and in the 2nd periods of a menstrual cycle.
Microdosed oral birth control pill
The dose of hormones in these pills is minimal, so they are ideal for young women up to 25 years, and, in addition, those who first faced the necessity of birth control. The well-known brands of these pills are: Apri, Azurette, Caziant, Kariva,Velivet, Natazia, Gianvi, Ocella, Yaz, Yasmin, Zarah, Beyaz, Safyral, Kelnor, Zovia 1/35, Zovia 1/50, Aviane, Levora, Portia, Trivora, Junel, Microgestin, Necon, Nortrel, Ortho-Novum, MonoNessa, Previfem, TriNessa, Cryselle, Low-Ogestrel, Ogestrel.
Low-dose oral birth control pill
These pills are recommended to young and mature women including those passed through childbirth, or those who are appointed to patients because of the use of the micro dosed preparations, that led to intermenstrual smearing bleedings. According to the research of the manufacturers, the group of the low-dosed pills has an anti-androgenic effect (growth of hair in uncharacteristic places decreases, the acne and the increased greasiness of skin disappear, seborrhea decreases). The list includes such birth control pills as Diane, Yasmin (Midiana), Femoden, Silhouette, Janine, Three-merci, Lindinet, Select, Minisiston, Regulon, Marvelon, Mikroginon, Rigevidon, Belara, Chloe, and Desmoulins.
High-dose oral birth control pill
The dose of hormones in these birth control pills is rather high therefore, they are appointed either for the purpose of treatment (for example, endometriosis) or at a stage of therapy of hormonal frustration (Non-oven, Trikvilar, Ovid, Triest on, Tri-region) only on the prescription of the doctor.
The mini-pill consists of progestogen only. The mechanism of the action lies in the local effects on peripheral parts of a genital system. First, the mini-pill affect the composition of cervical mucus and its quantity. So, in the middle of the cycle, its amount decreases, but the viscosity of the mucus remains high in any phase of the menstrual cycle that interferes the free movement of sperm. Changes also occur in the morphological and biochemical structures of the endometrium, that create a bad environment for implantation. The most common mini-pills: Camila, Errin, Heather, Jolivette, Nora-BE.
Male Birth Control Pills
Scientists have found a way to prevent the advance of sperm during an ejaculation. Due to this, men will soon be able to use a new form of birth control. Scientists said that the full birth control effect can be achieved by blocking two proteins in the cells of smooth muscles, which contribute to the movement of sperm. Research has shown that lack of two proteins α1A-adrenergic receptors and P2X1-purinergic receptor, causes infertility, without being reflected in sexual function and behavior.
Researcher Dr. Sab Ventura and Dr. Carl White from the Institute of Monash in Austria believe that due to the new method it will be possible to develop a birth control pill for men. Previous methods were based on hormonal mechanisms, which lead to the fact that the sperm becomes incapable of fertilizing. But they had an influence on male sexuality and caused long-term irreversible effects on male fertility. The new method causes complete male infertility but does not affect sperm viability and male sexual health. The sperm remains, but there is no chemical team to movement. At this stage, there is a pill which affects one of two proteins, but the chemical substance is necessary for the development of the pills blocking the second one. The next step will be the development of male birth control pill which will be effective, safe and reversible.
Nowadays several new birth control methods for men are being developed:
Dr. Nnaemeka Amobi from the London royal college develops a non-hormonal method, which prevents an ejaculation, without influencing orgasm. Pills are affecting the muscles in the ejaculatory duct that propels sperm. Scientists hope to develop the pills to be taken before sex, just like Viagra.
Potential birth control effect was discovered in other pills. For example, the pill gamendazole, which is used for the cancer treatment, reduces male fertility by preventing the maturation of sperm. Men produce a normal quantity of sperms, but those are not active. The method is reversible.
This is also an analog of the pill against cancer, it also helps to produce the immature sperm. However, there’s a fine line between a birth control effect and toxic effect of the pill, that doesn’t contribute to the health of the man. Still, the scientists have been able to lower significantly a necessary dosage, and the drug can be injected by means of shots.